Wednesday, July 22, 2009

The case for reading good books

A precondition for reading good books is not reading bad ones: for life is short.
--Arthur Schopenhauer

Regular encounters with great thinkers and great ideas can give us perspective. They can remind us that our personal experiences, unique though they may be in the particulars, have much in common with the experience of other human beings throughout the world and across the centuries.

By reading, we can expand our understanding and our empathy, and we can begin to see that some experiences – the joy of love and sex, the fear of death, the struggle with belief – are universal. This realization helps to alleviate our loneliness and increase our sense of empathy and solidarity with distant individuals and communities.

Reading widely can also help us to distinguish between what is trivial and what matters. For instance, the descriptions of society gossip in Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina, the description of the glamorous parties of the aristocracy in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, and the descriptions of the emptiness of a wealth-obsessed life in Sinclair Lewis’s Babbitt or Arthur Miller’s Death of a Salesman all serve to educate our sense of what is important.

If you are serious about self-education, reading should become a regular, major part of your life. There are alternative ways of learning, and some would-be self-educators may find reading – especially reading difficult material – to be a frustrating experience. Others will simply prefer other methods. But America’s most highly-regarded schools, the best college-prep high schools and elite universities, usually place a premium on broad, deep, challenging reading. In addition, the vast majority of the great thinkers of history have shared a passion for and dedication to reading and writing. By reading the works of important writers past and present, anyone can take part in a conversation about human existence that has gone on for over two millenia.

But this often requires walking past the tables of flashy, attractive, hardcover, fresh-off-the-press bestsellers and into the more forbidding and intimidating sections of literature and philosophy. It requires the reading of the "Great Books" (or "classics") that have stood the test of decades and centuries. The authors of these books dealt with the very same problems and questions that the men and women of today face, and they brought a level of profound understanding to their subjects that most of the popular writers of our day can only hope to approximate.

What's more, the language, vocabulary, and concepts writers like Plato and Shakespeare used to discuss ideas profoundly shaped our understanding of those ideas; they shaped the way we think and talk about human life. When we think through an idea or express our feelings, we are usually acting within the parameters set by the imaginations of our greatest writers: we think in their terms without being aware of it, because in many cases they are what we know - their work changed the history of ideas and thereby changed the conceptual, cultural, and political world we inhabit.

Our media is filled with references to our “21st-century” society and its unique challenges: globalization, technology, progress, the Internet, nuclear arms, genetic manipulation - all of these, we are told, signify that we are part of a world fundamentally different than that of our ancestors.

But it turns out that people in every age have felt their generation to be different from all who came before. In War and Peace, Tolstoy addresses this view. People of “limited intelligence,” Tolstoy writes, “imagine that human characteristics change with the times.” But War and Peace, like Hamlet, Paradise Lost, the Iliad, and the Bible (among many others), continues to speak to modern readers precisely because the differences and changes in human life across societies, cultures, and generations are outweighed by the continuities, the common human experience.

Birth and death, fear and hope, friendship and loneliness, belief and mythmaking - these are present everywhere and at all times. It would be intellectually crippling, therefore, for someone who hopes to be learned or well-read to ignore the classics because they are “old.” Their themes are timeless. If a book is still being read twenty, fifty, five-hundred, or two thousand years after it first appeared, all of those generations of readers who kept it alive must have found some value in it.

I am a firm believer in the value of putting the classics at the core of an education, but I also think it would be a mistake to stop there. More and more diverse writers are putting their thoughts on paper than ever before, and a few of them are producing some excellent literature. I try to keep up with Poetry magazine, for example, and I thoroughly enjoy the contemporary poetry I find there. Last year, I was blown away by Per Petterson’s novel Out Stealing Horses, which I picked up after reading a glowing review of it in the New York Times. Contemporary novelist Jim Harrison, a native of my home state of Michigan, is able to speak to me more immediately and directly than Plato or Shakespeare can because he is writing about places that are very meaningful to me. Resources such as the New York Times Book Review, the Los Angeles Times, Rain Taxi Review of Books, and The Second Pass are great places to find reviews of contemporary literature. At the end of the year, these and other reviewers often create lists of the “Books of the Year,” and these are worth reading.

In short, if it is wrong to advocate doing away with the traditional canon of Western literature for whatever reason - because it is underinclusive and "politically incorrect," or because contemporary students supposedly cannot connect with it - it is equally hubristic to argue or imply, as do some of the most fervent advocates of the "Great Books" (Mortimer J. Adler, Harold Bloom, etc.), that little of value has been written since the mid-20th century. We live in unusually fertile intellectual and artistic times. Again, it bears repeating: more people from more places and backgrounds are writing and publishing than ever before, and we have more access to their work than ever before.

Setting literature aside for a moment, it is clear that natural science and the social sciences require that we give a great deal of weight to contemporary materials. The discipline of international relations, despite its roots in the ancient writings of Thucydides, has only existed in its current form for less than a century. In the realms of math and science, it seems reasonable to learn about biology and mathematics from the most comprehensive and up-to-date textbooks rather than directly from Darwin and Newton. And, in my view, no one should consider himself or herself educated who is fully ignorant of contemporary history and the basic conditions of the modern world, and these are things that can only be learned by becoming a regular reader of or listener to high-quality news sources.

The bottom line, however, is that no matter what your interest, becoming a serious and disciplined reader is the surest path to educational growth. Your local library should have a copy of Mortimer J. Adler’s classic How to Read a Book and Clifton Fadiman’s The Lifetime Reading Plan, both of which contain detailed lists of “the classics” and make a strong case for focusing your reading on them. A website run by Robert Teeter at is a fantastic resource: it contains the Adler and Fadiman lists along with many others, including non-Western canons.

Internet tools such as LibraryThing, Facebook (each profile has a "favorite books" section), and are good sources of recommendations, and countless syllabi from university courses covering every subject under the sun can be found by searching Google and various online syllabi databases. Subscribing to newspapers and journals in your areas of interest will give you access to current book reviews and advertisements.

And, finally, you should not be shy about soliciting book recommendations directly from readers you admire, as well as those who work with books and ideas for a living: journalists, librarians, booksellers, graduate students, professors, lawyers, teachers. The book that turns one person’s worldview upside down may hold little interest for the next person, but whatever your interests, by doing a bit of research you can easily find books from which you can learn a great deal.


  1. There's a lot in there to grapple with, Ryan, and I appreciate your thoughts on the subject. But, to be frank, it all comes down to one maxim. The foodie sage Michael Pollan wrote in his great book In Defense of Food, "Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants." Your post is essentially saying, "Read books. Lots of books. Mostly classics." And I mostly agree. I read all kinds of things, from Charles Dickens to Elizabeth George. But people have different tastes and I'm pretty happy whenever I see someone reading anything (unless it's Dan Brown, but that's a whole other story). In this new age, the art of just picking up a good book seems to have lost its magic for many. In my counterfactual case, the web has actually made me a better book reader. Not only do I get fantastic recommendations and reviews from people whose perspectives I find kindred, but also because after a couple of hours of sitting in front of a computer screen, I'd like nothing more than to curl up under the covers with a great biography. The Atlantic published a piece last year asking if Google is making us stupid. Well, I feel smarter than I did before I started to become an avid consumer of digital media. Is this because I am more disciplined? Do I simply make clearer choices about the mode of reading that I prefer for different types of texts? Or is it much simpler? Do I like to read books more because, thanks to the web, I just read a lot more than I used to? I'm inclined to think it's the latter. Being a reader is a great thing. And just as you can only become a writer by writing, you can only become a reader by reading. If we force some of the classical canon on young people that haven't yet discovered the unadulterated pleasure of reading, might we in fact turn them off from the whole enterprise? I grew up reading some really lame teen fiction (I won't submit titles or authors out of sheer embarrassment) and it wasn't until I hit high school that I finally began to appreciate the Great Books. But at least I was reading. And I don't want to discourage that in any form, even if it's not the most highbrow.

  2. Thank you for your post! I dream of our school becoming a community of readers, with a sustained and indeniable culture of reading. Seeing a faculty member walk down the hallway with clutching an issue of POETRY or any non-assigned reading would be cause for celebration! Each of our district's media centers is filled with great books, including but not limited to those in the canon.

    I'm thinking randomly of a poetry book in our middle school, BLUE LIPSTICK, a collection of concrete poems about adolescence. I copied out several individual poems and delivered them to faculty mailboxes (even to coaches). I posted one on high school staff lounge bulletin board.

    I've wrapped up books in ribbon, giving them as (temporary) "presents". I've tried gimmicks and personal recommendations to inspire staff to read beyond the assigned texts.

    I believe teachers are powerful role models for our students. What if every teacher was passionately reading in their "spare" time and sharing that enthusiasm with the students? I can't imagine that it wouldn't make a huge difference, not only for the students but for the adults!

    PLNs are all the rage, focusing primarily on electronic resources. We can't forget that books offer a different experience, often offering wisdom (or enlightenment) rather than just information. Data - information - knowledge - wisdom.

  3. Thanks for the comments! I agree with both Stella and KK. KK, you are spot on about the importance of educators modeling good reading habits in front of students. The habits of teachers and other adults in the community constitute a crucial part of students' educational environments. If we want kids to grow into self-educators and lifelong learners - an essential goal of K-12 schooling, in my view - then we need to be self-educators and lifelong learners ourselves.

    Stella - you are probably on to something in terms of putting a primacy on reading enjoyment and pleasure with early readers. I don't necessarily think that pleasure and the "classics" are mutually exclusive; for instance, the best kids books (Roald Dahl, Shel Silverstein, Lois Lowry, etc. - see the post below: are also some of the most entertaining. And in high school, maybe an emphasis should be placed on books like "To Kill a Mockingbird" and "Lord of the Flies" - very good books with established places in the contemporary canon, but very entertaining as well as educative.

    I think quality and aesthetic distinctions between works can be made even at the earliest reading levels - so, "Frog and Toad Together" instead of (or in addition to) "SpongeBob SquarePants." It's important for educators to represent reading as entertaining, which it is, but in terms of sheer entertainment it can't always compete with video games and instant messaging for many kids. So it must also be represented as a worthwhile and rewarding challenge.

    I think that Stella makes a great point when she mentions that she reads more because of the Internet. I can second that, at least in terms of quantity of words read. However, I sometimes worry that once you acquire "fluency" in the language of political blogs, for example, reading them loses some of its educative value. Whenever reading something becomes too easy and comfortable, maybe it is time to launch a full-frontal assault on that comfort by turning to a challenging book of political theory, for instance. Just a thought - I'm still working out these ideas.

    (Incidentally, for me, the transition from childrens' literature to adult literature occurred was paved by non-canonical books as well: I typically carted three big, fat fantasy novels at a time around with me during middle school. The transition was completed in 9th grade when I read Ayn Rand's "Atlas Shrugged," which, despite its many flaws, introduced me in an entertaining way to the world of ideas and politics that I've had one foot in ever since).

    Thanks again for your wise comments, and please keep reading!

  4. I just read Atlas Shrugged this summer. Partly out of a sense that it's just one of those books everyone should read. Partly because we hear so much now about "going Galt" that I felt like I should probably go right to the source. It's about 300 pages too long but I can definitely understand why it has a reputation as a book that changes the lives of 9th grade males! Excellent characterization and interesting ideas that have absolutely no basis in reality. But that being said, I'm very glad I read it. That's what a joy of reading will do for you. I felt extremely accomplished having made it through that tome of nonsense.

  5. I'm going to add my few cents to this comment.
    First off, just coming out of a English undergraduate program, I have to say that academics are absolute snobs. I'm probably one myself but I at least admit that I have an opinion and bias! I actually heard a professor scoff at Harry Potter. Why? because it's a children's book? More popular than anything a scholar would write? Is it because it doesn't include that compelling scenes of human misery that seem to congest the prize literature of the acedemic world? Huff.

    No my opinion is canon should include as much as possible those books that have a substancial impact on the culture of the literature. Shakespeare cannot be ignored. His impact is far reaching. It's also important to address important literature that affects people like Shakespeare and reflect his time period such as Sidney, Marlowe etc. Literature that reflects the social, polical issues of the time period are important to include as well as books who have made a substancial impact on society like Uncle Tom's Cabin or Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol. Literature from other countries and time periods as well as literature from minority sources are important. However, we should look equally at the merits of the books and their contribution to society. And finally, we need to study the books of recent decades, popular literature, trash literature when appropriate etc. But people in our class who argue against the canon have a valid point yet might consider the practical reality of teaching. It would be wonderful if we could teach every book that made a blip in time but that's impossible. Sadly we really have to pick and chose.
    Also, we shouldn't underestimate literature just because it is youth and popular.